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  • Writer's pictureGurprit Ganda

What Are Medico-Legal Reports and When Do You Need One?

Updated: Jun 18


Medico-legal reports are important documents used in legal proceedings. They provide detailed medical assessments and expert opinions. These reports are essential in various situations such as personal injury claims, workers' compensation cases, and criminal investigations, providing a detailed analysis of the medical aspects relevant to the case.

Psychological reports, on the other hand, are equally vital in legal matters, particularly in personal injury and workers' compensation claims. These reports delve into the emotional and mental repercussions of incidents on claimants, shedding light on psychological effects like post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression resulting from accidents.

Judge reviewing a medico-legal report

By establishing a direct correlation between physical injuries and psychological distress, these reports evaluate claimants' mental states, symptoms, behavioral changes, and the overall impact on their quality of life. This evaluation is crucial in determining the extent of damages and appropriate compensation for the individuals involved.

Section 14 Reports

Section 14 reports are specialized documents prepared by psychologists to assess individuals' mental health, cognitive abilities, and overall well-being. These reports involve in-depth evaluations, interviews, observations, and standardized tests conducted in adherence to ethical guidelines and professional standards.

These reports are often requested in legal proceedings to provide evidence that either supports or challenges claims related to mental health conditions or cognitive impairments.

Use Cases of Medico-Legal & Section 14 Reports

In cases of personal injury, a medico-legal report may be used to assess the extent of physical harm caused by an accident and the long-term implications for the individual's health and well-being. This information can help determine the appropriate compensation to be awarded to the injured party. A study by the Law and Justice Foundation of New South Wales found that private lawyers (solicitors and barristers) were consulted in dealing with 21% of legal problems where the respondent sought legal advice, highlighting the potential use of medico-legal reports in such cases.

Similarly, psychological reports can be instrumental in cases involving mental health issues, such as assessing a defendant's competency to stand trial or determining the impact of trauma on a plaintiff's psychological state. These reports provide valuable insights into the individual's mental health condition, which can influence the court's decision-making process. Research from the University of Queensland found that medico-legal reports are commonly used in child protection cases, where psychological assessments play a crucial role in determining the best interests of the child.

In child custody battles, psychological reports may be used to evaluate the mental and emotional well-being of the parents and the children involved. These reports can help the court make informed decisions about custody arrangements that prioritize the best interests of the children.

While Australia-specific research on the use of medico-legal reports by lawyers, solicitors, and barristers is limited, sources from medical and psychological professional bodies highlight the importance of these reports in legal proceedings. Additionally, research from other countries, such as the United States, suggests that medico-legal reports are widely used by legal professionals in various contexts, including personal injury claims, criminal cases, and family law matters.

Structure of Medico-Legal Reports

According to the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne, medico-legal reports typically follow a structured format to ensure that all relevant information is included and presented in a clear and organized manner. The structure may vary depending on the specific requirements of the legal matter or the guidelines provided by the requesting party, but generally includes the following sections:

  1. Cover Letter: This section includes details such as the consultant's fee schedule, the number of hours spent reviewing the case and completing the report, and a statement indicating whether the report will be issued before payment.

  2. Introduction: This section provides details about the expert's qualifications, the literature or other materials relied upon, and any missing information.

  3. Case Summary: A chronological summary of the case, including relevant details and events.

  4. Specific Questions: Answers to specific questions posed by the requesting party.

  5. Treatment Outcomes: A summary of the range of possible treatment outcomes.

  6. Expert Opinion: The expert's opinion, supported by reasons and evidence.

  7. Conclusions: A summary of the conclusions reached.


Both medico-legal and psychological reports serve as indispensable tools in legal and educational environments, offering valuable insights, detailed assessments, and concrete evidence to facilitate informed decision-making. These reports contribute to the achievement of positive outcomes and the implementation of personalized interventions aimed at supporting individuals' overall well-being, recovery, and success.


  • Consumers' Experiences of Legal Services: Rapid Review (Law and Justice Foundation of New South Wales)

  • Practices and perspectives regarding medico‐legal reports in day‐to-day child protection practice (University of Queensland)

  • Lex Medicus: Medico-Legal Reports Specialists & Experts Australia

  • Expert Witness Nurse: How We Can Help You, The Lawyer

  • Hyman, D. A., Rahmati, M., Black, B. S., & Silver, C. (2016). Medical malpractice litigation and the market for plaintiff-side representation: Evidence from Illinois. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 13(4), 603-636.

  • Kaspiew, R., Carson, R., Moore, S., De Maio, J. A., Deblaquiere, J., & Horsfall, B. (2014). Independent Children's Lawyers Study: final report. Commonwealth Attorney-General's Department.

  • Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne. How to Write Medico-legal Reports for VFPMS. (N.d.). Retrieved from

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